The MVC Pattern and ASP.NET MVC - Back to Basics

Posted by: Suprotim Agarwal , on 7/25/2013, in Category ASP.NET MVC
Views: 126623
Abstract: A refresher MVC tutorial for beginners, the origins, evolution and current state of ASP.NET MVC.

Today we’ll take a break from discussing cutting edge framework enhancements and the latest and greatest. We’ll step back to take a look at the big picture. We will revisit some old questions of what is MVC, where do we start and how do we go about understanding the working of ASP.NET MVC.

If you are thorough with the basics, make sure you check our ASP.NET MVC Beginner to Advanced Tutorials

Thank you Sumit Maitra for co-authoring this article.

Revisiting MVC – the pattern

Trygve Reenskaug is attributed with the formulation of the Model View Controller pattern in 1979 while working at XEROX’ Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). You can refer to the original paper here, where it was originally referred to as Thing-Model-View-Controller. MVC was developed to solve the problem of users controlling large and complex data sets. The following rather unique image explains the main purpose of MVC – to bridge the gap between a User’s mental Model and the digital model that exists in the computer (original source).


Even in its early incarnation MVC easily achieved one thing clearly, that was to elegantly separate concerns. Even from the above diagram, we can easily make out the purpose of each component:

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Model: Models represent data and thus knowledge. It could be a single object or a hierarchy/tree of objects. However, they should only be dealing with only one problem domain, for example data about appointments is not in the same problem domain as the color of rectangle used to represent the appointment on the screen.

View: Views are the visual representation of their respective Models. It can highlight certain Model attributes (properties) and suppress others.

Controllers: The unit of interaction that serves as a link between the User and the System. It presents data to User by arranging various Views appropriately. It also provides means for user input such as mouse operations and keystrokes. A controller should never supplement a View.

Evolution of the MVC Pattern

The above description of MVC pattern is almost 35 years old and as is obvious, it represented Software and Hardware architecture prevalent at the time; basically stateful applications, running on mainframes and accessed over remote terminals. These apps could hold on to application state for long periods. This is in contrast to current day architectures built on stateless protocols like HTTP the backbone of web applications.

Having said that, MVC has evolved really well and as ASP.NET MVC has shown, it can be very easily adapted. In context of Web Applications, MVC can be stated as follows:

Models: Classes that represent the problem domain (the problem/requirement we are trying to solve/accomplish). These classes also have code and logic to serialize and de-serialize the data into dedicated data stores as well as do validation and domain-specific logic. In ASP.NET MVC, this is the place for ORM or Data Access frameworks to do their magic.

Views: Views are essentially templates to generate the final HTML at runtime. Though, we say HTML, we could potentially return other types of Views like PDFs etc.

Controller: The class that manages the relationship between View and the Model. It is also responsible for accepting requests from the User and deciding which View to serve up if any.

The ASP.NET MVC Framework

The ASP.NET MVC Framework helps developers build applications that adhere to the MVC pattern. Additionally the MVC Framework started with the goal of enabling or providing themselves developer tools that enhance developer productivity and ease of use. Towards these goals, the framework has added functionality like HtmlHelpers, Validators that work unobtrusively, Attribute based Model validation, Pluggable components and dependency resolution (making it easier to use Dependency Injection, which in turn improved testability) and much more.

ASP.NET Web Forms and a bit of History

As we know, ASP.NET WebForms was with us from day one of ASP.NET. With the above insight into stateful systems and MVC, we can now see that WebForms was mimicking stateful systems over a stateless protocol (HTTP). This resulted in overheads like ViewState and Sessions that were not required for View Generation OR for the Model. With nothing enforcing separation of concerns, it was an easy system to abuse. Aided by tool support provided in Visual Studio, newbie developers migrating from VB6 and other stateful systems made full use of the ‘state’. Instead of working on separating concerns it was easy to couple the Controller logic and sometimes data logic in the code-behind. Needless to say, this resulted in brittle systems that had little or no extensibility and was difficult to understand and maintain. Soon it was apparent retrofitting state into a stateless system was a bad idea and something new was required. This is where the ASP.NET MVC found inspiration and was eventually released on March 13, 2009.

You can also read a very old article of mine that differentiates ASP.NET WebForms with ASP.NET MVC

Cross pollinating tooling support and framework features

ASP.NET MVC is currently in release 4 and working towards release 5 in September. It initially went very fast with bringing enhanced tooling support via Visual Studio Extensions and packages. However, now these tooling and framework enhancements have started flowing back into ASP.NET WebForms. For example, the Routing component that gave MVC its Rubyesq friendly URLs that didn’t end with a file name and also did not tie up URLs to physical paths, was initially ASP.NET MVC only, but soon it was released as a separate component and was available for use in both WebForms and ASP.NET MVC.Framework.

Thus WebForms continues to be a viable and supported way of building web applications, though it’s strongly suggest you adhere to MVC principles while designing such applications and keep the Code Behind usage to a bare minimum.

With the history of ASP.NET MVC covered, lets dive head-first into how things work!

ASP.NET MVC Pipeline


The above image is a high-level/happy path showing how ASP.NET MVC handles an incoming request from a user.

Step 1: The request goes through the ASP.NET stack and is handed over to the routing engine the first thing.

Step 2: Based on the route configuration, the routing engine looks for the appropriate controller. If the controller is found, it is invoked. If not found, a Controller not found is returned by the Routing engine.

Step 3: The Controller interacts with the Model as required. If there is incoming data, Model binding is done by ASP.NET MVC to make the incoming data into a strongly type Model if required.

Step 4: The model if invoked, retrieves or save appropriate data and returns to the controller.

Step 5: The controller then requests for a View with (or without) the data from Model. There may be one or more View engines registered so MVC Cycles through all the View engine until it finds one and renders the view. Then hands over the request to the ViewEngine which returns the Result to the Controller. The Controller send back the Result as a part of the HTTP response.

This is a highly simplified view of course. However the key steps remain the same.

The takeaway in this diagram is that ASP.NET MVC is dealing with straight HTTP, there is no ViewState munging or other fancy state management in the pipeline

A more detailed view is available in Steven Sanderson’s famous chart (from RedGate’s site).

Hooks into ASP.NET MVC

Earlier we had mentioned that the ASP.NET MVC had improved pluggability and dependency resolution support. A few examples of this is the support for Custom Controller Factory allowing IoC containers to inject dependencies into controllers. Also View Engines can be added or replaced completely. Additionally we have the Action Filter mechanism that allows custom handling of cross cutting concerns like Logging and Security.

With an idea of how MVC is working under the hood, let’s look at one more pattern that is prevalent now-a-days.

Derivative Patterns – Model View Presenter and Model View ViewModel

Following the generic MVC pattern for separation of concerns in Data Intensive, Interactive apps, a few derived patterns emerged at later points. We’ll look at two of them, the Model View Presenter and the Model View ViewModel pattern.

The Model View Presenter (MVVM)

The Model View Presenter pattern was first presented by Taligent in 1996. In this variation of MVC, the Presenter takes over the role of controller, as well as additional responsibility of interacting with the View and interpreting events on the View that are initiated by the user. It provides additional business logic that maps them on-to appropriate commands.

This results in the View in MVP getting more and more passive as compared to MVC.

The Model View ViewModel (MVVM)

The Model View ViewModel pattern was introduced by Microsoft for rich interactive applications based on WPF and Silverlight. However, this model took off in the web development world with the advent of HTML5 and with the resurgence of JavaScript, currently there are quite a few MVVM JavaScript libraries available too.

The two main characteristics in this pattern are:

1. Model is split into Domain Model and View Model: The Domain Model represents how data is stored in the storage medium be it SQL or Document Databases. On the other hand, ViewModel represents the data to be viewed by the user. Normally data being viewed is a composition of one or more Domain model entities, along with other additional view related configurations.

2. Along with View Model, the MVVM pattern also proposes a data-binding mechanism that enables view to update itself on change of view models and vice-versa. When first proposed, this was supported with WPF and Siliverlight. Now-a-days framework like Knockout, Angular, Backbone etc. all support two way data binding.

In many ways, the MVVM pattern is highly suitable for Web based applications wherein Data on the Server upto the MVC Controller is mapped to the Domain objects, whereas data on client side is transferred as JSON and additional ViewModel behavior is defined in JavaScript itself.

In ASP.NET MVC, recent updates have started providing Single Page application templates that use Client side model binding using JavaScript big time. KnockoutJS is the default model binding library, but you can easily drop in something else too.


That was a quick preview of what’s MVC with respect to ASP.NET MVC, its origins, history and usage in the .NET framework. We also took a refresher on the Model View Pattern and the Model View ViewModel patterns as well.

This article has been editorially reviewed by Suprotim Agarwal.

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Suprotim Agarwal, MCSD, MCAD, MCDBA, MCSE, is the founder of DotNetCurry, DNC Magazine for Developers, SQLServerCurry and DevCurry. He has also authored a couple of books 51 Recipes using jQuery with ASP.NET Controls and The Absolutely Awesome jQuery CookBook.

Suprotim has received the prestigious Microsoft MVP award for Sixteen consecutive years. In a professional capacity, he is the CEO of A2Z Knowledge Visuals Pvt Ltd, a digital group that offers Digital Marketing and Branding services to businesses, both in a start-up and enterprise environment.

Get in touch with him on Twitter @suprotimagarwal or at LinkedIn

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Feedback - Leave us some adulation, criticism and everything in between!
Comment posted by santosh kumar patro on Sunday, July 28, 2013 5:56 AM
A controller should never supplement a View.

Can you please explain more details about the above point.
Comment posted by cgsd on Monday, November 18, 2013 5:47 AM
Comment posted by devesh omar on Friday, November 22, 2013 5:31 AM
Nice content
Comment posted by arunabh on Tuesday, November 26, 2013 2:38 AM
Good article. Great content to begin your journey with MVC.

Just wanted to bring to the team's notice that the link for the original paper does not seem to work. Please get it rectified.

Comment posted by Baxter on Tuesday, November 26, 2013 4:42 AM
Models: "These classes also have code and logic to serialize and de-serialize the data into dedicated data stores as well as do validation and domain-specific logic. In ASP.NET MVC, this is the place for ORM or Data Access frameworks to do their magic."

I disagree. Doing that will violate the single responsibility principle (the "S" of SOLID design guidelines) and would thus be a bad practice. And let's not mention OR/M frameworks - that way lies madness for they are truly the tools of the devil
Comment posted by sadsad on Monday, February 10, 2014 7:01 AM
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Its good
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Comment posted by Suriya on Thursday, July 24, 2014 4:43 AM
Comment posted by Jineesh on Friday, September 12, 2014 5:07 AM

Please let me know how can I learn ASP.Net thoroughly. And also let me know how can I get certifications from Microsoft.
One thing is that I am not a degree holder.

Please help me

Jineesh TR
Comment posted by Suprotim Agarwal on Saturday, September 13, 2014 6:13 AM
@Jineesh: Although you can find many ASP.NET topics on this site, this is a good place to start if you are a beginner
Comment posted by Ram on Wednesday, September 24, 2014 11:56 PM
good Airtical!!!!
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